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上野国総社神社 -- 神社史
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東国平定 人皇第十代崇神天皇は、御所の中に天照大神をお祀りしてあったが、これは神威を穢すと思し召しになり大和の笠縫村の小高いところにお遷しして祀られた。また、国土の平定のため武勇の優れた皇族方を選んで北陸、東海、山陰の各地に派遣され、良民を苦しめる悪者を退治し、荒れ地や野山の開拓や植民を行われた。これを四道将軍と呼んでいる。なお、国家が良民を保護し安心して生活ができるようにしてやるための費用として男には「手末調」(現在の租税)を出させて国家組織の整備に尽くされた。また、天皇は皇子豊城入彦命を不安定であった東国平定のために派遣された。男の弓弭調としては毛皮など、女の手末調としては織物など
神社の起源 崇神天皇の四十八年三月皇子豊城入彦命は東国平定の命を奉じ、上野にお下りになられるや、神代の時代に国土の平定に貢献された経津主命の御武勇を敬慕され、軍神としてその御神霊を奉祀して御武運の長久を祈られ、また、経津主命の親神(ご両親)である磐筒女命の御二方をも合祀せられた。これが当社の始まりである。
蒼海明神の号 豊城入彦の子孫は、代々上毛野国君としてこの地に全盛を施し、当社を熱く崇敬されてきた。その後、人皇第二十七代安閑天皇の九年三月、上毛野国君小熊王は、社殿を改築して郷名に因んで蒼海明神と称えるようになった。
形名の伝説 人皇第二十九代天皇の九年に蝦夷が叛いたとき、上毛野君名は勅命を奉じて討伐に赴いたが、敵の重囲に陥り戦いは利あらず、もはやこれまでと討ち死にの覚悟をしたとき、その妻は敢然として夫を励まし、自らも剣を佩き次女達に命じて盛んに弓絃を打ちならさせたため、形名もにわかに勇気を出して陣頭にたって奮戦したので敵の重囲を破り蝦夷を退治することができた・・・と伝えられている。上州の嬶天下の諺もこうした古希の由来も一因ではないかと思われる。
国府の設置 大化改新の詔によって律令政治が行われるようになりそれまで地方を治めていた国造は廃止され、新たに大和朝廷から国司が任命され、政庁としてしての国府が置かれ、その下の各郡には郡司を置いて政治を行うようになった。国府には朝廷から任命された役人がいて国内の治安を守り、班田収授や徴税を行うなどの仕事をしていたが、上毛野国の国府は当時は下図のような位置に設置された物と推定される。国府は一辺が六丁から八丁の方形で、中央北部に国司のいる国衙が置かれ、その周囲に住居や倉庫が配置されていた。

上野の国から延喜式神明帳まで

上野の国

佐渡を入れて全国六十八カ国が小国、中国、上国、大国の四段階に区分されたとき上野野国は最初上国にはいっていたが、人皇第五十二代嵯峨天皇の弘仁二年に親王が治めるようになってから大国になった。こうして大国十四カ国に入ったことは

一、交通の要衝であったこと
二、山と平野を持つ豊かな自然環境であること
三、内陸にあるため災害の少ない安定した地域であること
四、大きな関東平野を東南に控えていること

以上の条件と、親王の任国となって上野野国の国府は益々重要な物となり東国の文化の中心となった。

上毛野国 人皇第四十二代文武天皇の大宝元年、大宝律令の制定により東国文化の中心で上毛野国は「毛」をのぞいて「上野国」と書くようになった。また呼び名も「かみつけぬのくに」から「かみつけのくに」そして次第に「こうづけのくに」に変わっていった。もともと毛は毛人と書いて蝦夷(えみし)と同義語にもちいられ、大和朝廷に反抗する異種族としてとらえられていることもあり、響きの悪い言葉であったため「毛」をのぞいた物と思われる。また延喜式巻第二十二部には「凡そ諸国部内の郡里等の名は二字を用いて嘉名をとれ」とある。
上野国分寺 天平十三年三月二十四日、人皇第四十五代聖武天皇が全国の国司に国分寺(僧寺と尼寺)を建立するよう詔(

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